1899

ؼʣ ά ձ ϰ

¼պϰ־

1899Ҫ¼ǡʲôǡûзʲôΪ̫9·䣬άزˣͬΪⳡ䣬һԭ1898ĩ1899ݵġպϰ־磬Ҳ˵;

Ƶľ֮

˿ƶȾȡи֮⣬Ϊ껹һҪġ֮ߡǾǡպϰݿϡԱסأ

ʱձʹʸҰԼϰ飬弫꣬ʸҰ֪ʣȻԴڸʡ֪֮ʸҰδҡ

µ飬ϴʱûеõʵ۵ټʸҰˣְձʡ롰֪šԺٲĵƼ£ٶȽ磬1897걻ΪձפʹʸҰٲ֮ϵ˿ڡպϰٲĽϵֱ

òΪһ಻Ϊ֡

ûж䡰ϰ顱ϸҪʾǺϲ⽻ͬˣҪοϡ

¶ʮģ̲ºʵۣǨš顣鳯͢Ǩ֮⣬ϡš߾뿵ϡպϰķΪơ

ڡšϽ飺ְΪѣһȵƸʿȨЧغꡱ⼴Ƹ롰ʿЩʿǹݣҪȨҪǾְȨޡ

ϻʵĿеġʿѡۣ֮١½£ٰ࣬ΣǡԺþʹڶĿɣСҲ˵ĿеѡǸոжձְٲġ

ڿΪйڶЩͯӤû˻ʵ۵רƣʲôǺ޳·ģοʵӢ䣬ǧѷ꣬˺ûʵۣȫûҪʲôԺֻҪ߾丰֮Ͼ

ڡ飺Ϊձߣ޹йҷԱ֮㣬֮ڣ֮ģϵ֮ϣ·ͲţʶԮϵԼˣʿ£̫ƽ֣֮Գڵ֮ҵ๮ʯӡŷΪһ಻Ϊ֣ŲԺԴ棬ԺڰµԲ⡢ڹϳɶƵƣް֮Ȩй̹֮Ȼ֮޲¼ɡ

ϵġʲô˼ΪԿ϶һĹ֮ĽˣֹڴˣϼʲôŲΪ̸ʲôΪһ⽻Ϊϸǿʲô̹Ȼ֮޲¼ɡ

ʷѧҿ鼪֤ϵۺܿǿΪġ

Ħ̫ڡϰٲߵһ

ںʵƼٲĵͬʱΪڻӢʿĦ̫ϺֵעǣĦ̫ڼս׫СߡһģšӢϰϡߡй

һƸλ֮ˣһ´Լ԰ܹܣû٣ˡ·Ե·һ֮ˣԼʮ̰֮졣ġĦ̫ǿ긻ļӦܹܳ¡塢йӦӢijijijijʱϣϸ¡ձϵΣӦӢijijijijܹܱ¡ߡѧΪ˲ŸӦijijijij֮ˡս֮£ϱӦר֮˱˲ţԱʹšϸ£Ӧּ

ϵһ飬ʵϣй⽻·ֽȨȫƹܡ鱳ϾǺξģҲۣµĽȻʹйΪڶӡȡ

Ħ̫뿵Ϊһȴûȡֱӽ鿵ϣٲѾʹձһǿʢĹңй˵õİ취ٵλʵ۵ĹʡΪͬͬʱϣϳλʵ۵һʡΪֵעǣݡĦ̫ڻ¼ءϵִﱱٲסͬһùݣٵ˳̸Ժ󣬿ͬߵγĦ̫顰ϰ־䣬ڵʱӢѽͬˣԶԿĦ̫ġϰ飬ٲǷֱӲвö֪Ӧ˽ͬġ

ȰӺϰ֮֮

ٲĵ־֮йҰһһɡȡڶձά³ɹľ֧άµĹԱ鳯͢ƸΪʡΪҲ޸Լ֮ǰġƶȾ֡᰸Ϊ衰ڵڵȻֻƶȾֵı֣ƶȾһ΢ڵ֮šѡͨӢʮˣƸרҹƶȣһӦӦ֮£ȫ̳㣬һϸȻʩСˡƸרҹƶȡƸ볯߲͢㡣

³壬ٲĽʵ۵ͬգʽʵǵġϰ飬ݿΪأ᰸ǿڰⶨģʵ۵ģǿ㡣˵

̲ºϷУǨ˵ҪҪߣĪ֮һãΪǿˣ֮޶볼霺ϣ֮ʹȹڳdzϰʱ֮ҲӢʦĦ̫´ϺΪỪʤ㣬ƽΣ֣Ӣձͼ֮ߡֵձٲڶΪ࣬ԸỪԱҲδΪ֮٣ Ϊ֮ȷԸһ綨ƣ̽ӢձӺϰ֮֮²֮ӡ

ᵽĦ̫ٲģҲᵽ˺塣䡰̽Ӣձʲô˼Ȼǹ֮⽻ˣ⽻֮£˵Ӻϰ֮֮Ļ

⳶ϰʵ

ʵڰ³Ӽٲģûо͡šϰߡǺգҲ䷢ĵգǸβ³ٶ飬͡ϰһŬ˵

Ŷ˵ޱ¡ӢйͼڱӢʿĦ̫¿Ϊ⣬ʾָͼ֮ҲйձӢΪϰѡͨʱƹ߰ˣרĹ˰һ⽻£Ӫꡣټ֮ͨس ѧʿߣýʿĦ̫ٲģ֮ð취Թ¿ΪΪޣתΪԱV硣

ϵۣڽϰľ¶˳йձӢΪϰѡͨʱƹ߰ˣרĹ˰һ⽻£Ӫꡱǣ1ĹΪһ2Ĺϣ¯Ĺѡˣ¡3ӵйĹ˰һ⽻ĴȨ

Ħ̫ʵۣΪıӰ

ӢĿж

ΪĦ̫ٲĵ˻ϰ֮ʱӢսĴҲͻȻ³Žյֱܶ»籨»ڵ籨˵³һӢҳûڽɽ졢³ֳûܹظӢ峯פܹعԱƣӢ͢˱й

Ӣⲻ»ӣԤ䱸ԬռжԴأ()ĺӪеţνӢֻ߮ڡഫӪԢ硣ר飬νӢ߮ѵʿɴʮӪפ¼ҹμջط

ԺйʢݵȵأҲӢԵսϢ³壬ֽӵ»ĵ籨ӢˮǰҪйӪϢԺӢսҥཥõ塣

Ӣ԰ҾӴսûɽصȵأȷǶйƣǶԶս⾿ڣ18993£Ӣٷġй¼Ƥ顷394ŸнϵĦºź͸©еĻĦӢ棺

923ҵĵ籨 1617(³һ)ڱ˵۹ʹ֣˵̬һ㿴ƺƽģû⺣ӽϼˡ۹ľҲҪκرĴáˣҴŽӳһѾʱ˵Ķ̳ԤѲڶʮջص

Ħйɽصȵ߮Ӣͳ˧͸¶Ϣ1ĦжִӢפʹֵ2ȷĦû⺣ӽϼе۹ľνйӢսȫӢҥԡ

ΪҪҥԣȷʷϿ˵һƲ⣺1Ħ̫ڱıӢմϰ2Ħ̫ϵУ3ӢɢƣӢ͢˱й4󱣻Ϊߺ󣬾ȄʾڿΪ֮ͨǰδ֣ǣ꿵ֵʦ˲֪ΪͬھʦӢפʹȻѡɴĵ㣬ƺѵóһۣӢжĿ͢ʩѹٳɡϰ

պϰʷŶ

Ϊ쿪ǰϦġйġӢմϰչʾпյɲ롰ͬϡϰ᰸ʷԨԴ˼صʷŶ

ʷԨԴɭټ󶫺ϰۡ

ϰһʣʵձ1893꣬ɭټ桶󶫺ϰۡһ飬 ĴձӦ볯ʺΪһɭԼᳫϰɣ

˳гߣսȡ֮ƣҹԹ֪֮ȡ֮ߣ˾ݴ˵ҲЭԺ֮ΪҡҲdzִԺ֮ҲñȡҲ಻ñȡձҲһ֮ɣ֮޿ӡԷڱ֮ʣճ֮DzԹҲ.ϰձ֮գ

ΪܹܶӰ쳯˺йˣɭúдġйϺ򡢺ڡ졢صþдۡü飬Ϊͣɾ֮󣬽ɿϺַ̳ͬ棬Ϊ󶫺ϰ塷̸ϰȻɭӰ졣

Ժ޲Ԫ൱ھǵüɾıɭԭԭ˵ձɭ(ټ)󶫺ϲۡʮƪּںϳΪҺŷˡ£ҺȺԣҲϵɾıڸ֮ģǨī˸ΪijܱЦҲ

Ԫ֮ˣ˾ɭ϶ĵǵɭ˼뼫Ϊӣ塢붫֮ɭϲ޲Ϊ˱ձԳʡйҲǿԿ϶ģҲΨˣſ̶ͬ顣

µ߼͹۽Ըȫ෴ġ1896꣬ձڳʽݡϰ־磬dzʹӣɱ˺Ҳϣ1905꣬ձڵڳͳ࣬ͳ⽻񣬶ͳ࣬ٲġһΣ꿵ıġϰƻεơ

ʷŶӡϰǹȦ

ġϰ־Ȼûܹ1899ʵϰȴᴩ˴˺йʷ͡

1915꣬ձйġʮһԬͬʱԡϰ֮˵ѣƭй֪ʶӡһ깫սֱᵽϰ⣺

νձйҮձ˱ز֮ޣйdzʱҲԪ֮ҾԼһ֮Ҫϰ˴ʯöϲ֮£

ϴ˴ԡϰշרġ˼빤йأշⷬ˼빤вԼˡϰձֱӻʦͽľɶ

1919꣬Լձ̳е¹йɽ뵺Ȩ˹˵ķŭ˶95գڷͨ磬ҪʾǩԼͨٶἰպϰDZ󵱾ְϵձɵЭ飺

ֻ̨֮ʮաڪʮ֮󣬾ڸصأüٲ飻϶վ֮ģΰҾΰܴҶǧİֽ֮ɣϵպϰ䣬˹񲻿ϱʾǩԼ֮Ҳ

սڼշ׳ġǹȦҲǡպϰı֡ѧԡǹȦĶǣձ۹ڵڶսİսԹκ١193811ձ򡷵ԣ໥ЯΡáĻȷ滥ĹϵνսԹ롱꿵ġӢմϰơ

194753Ͼۡ־Ϊպϰۡ£٥һλѧʿձƶġϰŬȣ˵£ֻ

 

󶫺ϰۡ

ɭټ󶫺ϰۡպϰġСԴ飬ⲻ֪۵ĵһθʵʹó

ϸ塷

Сǫϸ塷1916档鷢չνġϰۡΪ˺ձйṩ֧֡

Ħ̫

ӢʿĦ̫(Timothy Richard18451919)1870ܽDzȺɽɽ̡1886ƾӱ1890Ρʱʡ1891굽Ϻιѧܸ£l916ְعֹѧ25ꡣάڼ쳣Ծй⽻·ֽȨȫƹܣǿϰƻĶ֧ߡ

Ӿͼ

Ӿͼһ̷ͬ˵Ľһӣ̷ͬУʰȡúмͷǽ飬ʺΪЦԻʫ紦ӣʱʱ΢ЦͷײڣʹʧԻģӵ£ҪֵеſޣЦ֡洫᷸˳֪̣࣬޸ְ̲ο˵󣬷Ǿ̣ޡȶǣų֪£вܴնʼţ˴㵡ԻδδɱͷҮλ˶

ٲ

ٲģաϰ֮һ䱬ϰƻ1898ĩٲҲй޹ձԺٽܳʵġšΡͳࡱˡճϰ

ٺ

ձʷѧٺϣ1866-1934ʷѧףٳΪձϰ۵չߡ峯峯һ͢ȥΪǿάһǿҵ棬òвҪ֪ʵμңżʹСҲҪֺƽ⣬֮˶⣬οԬԳǻ֪ۡͨ֡ƵĻμҸΪ֮Ҳûо򵽣峯һԭȨۡԶ׿ʶμңӦףδʮ֧꣬ǾûйıҪ

֧ۡ

ٺ֧ۡټйڡ֧ۡУΪйʽĹңձ֧dzͻҶΪʹ֧߽⡢ʰľأձҪȫ?ձÿÿǡȻʵΪ֧ǹҵij֧ǵ֯ȫȻ֪ɵġ򵥵ıȷ:Сԭռˣձ϶ȫ弤ߡȻ֧ǵȴձ֧ͬǡֵͼһӸжˣûиоȻܹš֧ǣֶ֯߻޹ϵѾáԣ֧˶ҲɹĹġȥй񹫷ߵʽȫжϣٵɿ¡

ؼʣ ά ձ ϰ

յ£ıж

յڻ꣬ĿΪάµʧܱж˵Ӱ˼ƣһ˲䷢˱仯ҵĵ׶ȡʤǰͷ޸±ϳŵıDZȺһھƲŻʡ

𣺿ΪĦ̫Ի

ӢפϺ°(Baurne)˵ΪȻģʹͬʱֱĦ̫һЩ޻̸֮Ի󡣡Ħ̫ǸıңԼΪάһЩ޴Ľ顣

ֿƾΪֻᱳ

ӢפʹָӢ⽻󳼵УпΪӢ˼ֿƾ(Cockburn)̸ı¼˵(Ϊ)̸һЩӢ˱йԼɳסйȺԺвⲻDZѧõĹ㷺ѡ

֣䷨DZΪ㻵

ӢʹµӢ⽻󳼣˵ΪӰٳɵģǺ޸ݵIJ롣ƺ롰ϰָ֮˵ðաϻ˵Ϊйı䷨Ѵ󱻿ΪǵIJΪ㻵ˡ

Ҳ޴̫

۱̨֮в޴̫˵ȷʵжԲ̫ĵطӦõġҲ»˵̫ˣΪ̫£ҲǶԵġܺԬ̫֮󡱣Ƿʶٲ롰ϰУ

ʹ֪

1899꣬󰢸磬ȡʹĽšϷϢָѾıʹȨ֪ࣺЩ˶DZDzйʵ۵Ĺ͢г䵱ģDZDzһԾй͢Դġ

ؼʣ ά ձ ϰ

̨ѧ׼ʥԿġϰƻйһۣ

䷨ڼ䣬ձǰٲ֮ٲӢʿĦ̫˵Ϊȱ䷨ɹԱ䡮š֮飬ñ䷨ɹԱվߺĵı ͼʵ䡮ϰıڿ谭šϰƻĴ̫»Ϊ̷ͬԬľӡɱ»Χú԰̫վ֮󣬲ŵϷ䣬˴һΣ֡

Ƿпϣʼǡһ֡ʼǡ֮ԲκѶæɱӡпֹѶ桱ǡԡϰһºܿжΪϧȨʶ1899зϳļƻһƻȴֱ衣꣬ĶˣȻϵ

¹Ҳۣ1899꣬ûкϰʵĪ֮¡

Դ䷨ʷ۸塷廪ѧ磻ý䷨ʷол֣ é䷨ʷ¿֣Ϊʷȡ

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