1864
1881
1883

1885ɽɽij־ϵŻͼעԭΪthe chinese many handed but soullessΪйʢûꡣɿͼ

1885ɽɽij־ϵŻͼעԭΪin the clutches of the chinese tigerΪйϻħơȫͼһ֡ƻ۵ͬΪɿͼ

ɽɽij־ϵŻͼעΪ˴⣺˵ĵ͹˺ܶ˵Ĺɿͼ

ڿ廭1980⵽ɱĻˡɿͼ

ձʱ˼Ҽٺ֮Ϊ18е¬츳Ȩ˵ÿ˶ƽȵȨ19ͣĵĽ۳ᄎ棬ֻǿ߲ȨֻΪū۵ˡֳ壬Ǵĵı⣬Ҳ˹ּΪԣԴͷΪձٺ֮ļĴ֮һձֻսǿҵɫʡɿͼ

îͼҪձƶȼ˼ĻϡŷîҪձҲŷ⣬СȲȫһɵоۣձ˵ɫʮ֧ʧġȵ¡,ձĻǡϣϵ,ǡDzȵºᡱԼľӥ̫ɵġоۡձĹҲ˴֮Ů,ձ̫ռݵŷ֮İϣǡ˹ӡȡ޵Ⱦҹͼ֣֧µġƻۡĻηӦ

ϸ䷭˹ġۡй˴ġʷۡͽʷۡǡǡҪɲ֡˺󣬡ˡ񡱵򣻡ʷۡŵʷһռаϢ˿ûϸľ裬һŷʷۡɽˡ

תй(1864-1949)

1881ͯɡ˼뷸

1881꣬ͯ;ءĵʹ˿ȣϺウϣһウȻͯܵĽȴȻҪɾƵľĹˡ []

͹ǵ

18ڣ񲻻ӦĽ

1979꣬һžȻ󲨡һλӢܵĸɲں俯Ǿյ־û뵽ëϯңĻϴ񣬻顱ҿǾIJΪ˶ǵһ񲻻Ӧģ[]

ѶʷԭƷ


ڱ༭


ϵʽ

䣺newshistory#qq.com(ʱ#Ϊ@)

绰01082155176

 

Ȩ

ѶʷƵԭ߻ӭתػ򱨵ע

ѶʷƵƳתй1864-1949ϵԭ߻ϣȥ׷Ѱһ⣺꣬Ӻδδȥϣ˲߻ܹΪһ⡪ִйӺδδһעš߻Ϊλһʷؼ⡣ע
1882¼ͨŻ

꣬˹͵ԱԼ(John F. Miller) ύŻΪˣ˼ұۡ

 

ŻߵҪǣĶϰƫܽڻ̻֮ϵ±׼һĴӿ룬ͬĽ̬ơŻߵǣŻΥѰԼеߣΥṲ͹ɡƽȡԭգŻ˹Ʊ֧֡

 

188256գͨʷϵһ޽ķִйػԼ涨ķɡͨν1882ŻֵעģһͨĻĵĽ˼𣬴ѧѧ򣬳ǿʳ֮Ż˺ݱ˻ƻۣ򳹵׸ıйת͹켣

ĵ飺й

1970ֵŻ糱ĿءĴӿٳ٣۾ͬʱֶ˵ľҵвͻݱ켣һϵŻݱĻϵŻ

 

Ż˳ң18767£Ժֱͨ飬һرίԱǰйе顣ίԱȺȡһٶ֤˹йЩ֤˳㼯һһǧٶҳġйرίԱᱨ顷ժ¼һЩ֤˳вѿһһİƫ

ABStoutΪĴԽԣֹй

 

ABStoutһλҽΪٽһĽһϸҽijְԴʹ˻ĸԭһο족

 

StoutڲοڶࡰȨʿ֮󣬵óĽǣ

 

߼(ĸ)˳Խֵе塣߾һ֮ϣ۲ԭҰָȥ֧ȫˣԳȨȥоͺͳϵһСִͬκµĽ϶͵Ʒʡһ뵽ƻá˻ͷضͬкijɷֱٶȳ

 

һҪ񣬾ӦýĴࣻңΣӦýԼȥͬӵ͵ϡ

 

ҵЩ뷨ڹйе۶ġ˵߷ԺѾþΪֹйķΥܷġҲ֪ͨʶ˲ҷ߷ԺйܷIJþԡǣѧĹ۵⻹дۡһȻDZĴࡪһ嶼ԽĻҪƶһԷ

 

Ϊϲݴں˶̾ĩĴйûʱָأһͱԶܡ˻һʼķչһڲ֪зĶԵӰ죬ⲻڼڣδ͡ƶķɣ˵ΪԼ˵Ϊ˺ҪǵĴǵȣǴ˻֮жǵȡ

 

һпɵķɶרΪЩɵƶġӵЩɣѹȡͬŷͨ飬ֻǷֳԼĸ߼ͣͬ˻ϣǾڴ˻ĻѪ

 

˵ҪɽйͬйɽʱҪǶйɿǵĴţǵԼ˵Ǻ޸ݵġй˿ܻ߸˵ƾӵǵĹȥΪÿһ϶ԸĽ˥˵壻෴ÿһйǵöʹԼѪͳ͡

 

һЩǺʵġ޿ӦõõһʲôλأԸҹǴȫĹ۵Ӧòȡʲô?ÿһĹǰӦʲôĿأǡĻشǣӦðǿı͡һʥơӦøḻĿ

 

FrankMPixleyͬй˽Ӵǵ͵ǵij̶ȡ

 

FrankMPixleyǾɽɽеĴժ¼άľɽɽлݴFABee𱾴εرίԱίԱ֮ʴ

 

FABeeлݴˣʣָ?˵﷢һ˵˵ΪӦͷϷŻ̫ƽʴ˾ִ

 

Ƥ˹𣺴Լʮǰһ̸ЩҰҹʱ˵κֹйˡѴйִͷյĺáֱڴҲûиıҽʮֻɣʮǰˣǷ񲻻ʹǵ𾪣ͻ飬ͻǴй˳

 

ʣΪһ͹׼ǵԸô?

 

ԡ͡๤ūηǵķɣΪάԼȴͶ

 

ʣ᷽˵DzһȷҪ?

 

𣺲Dzȷ㡣ҿDZϵκ嶼Ҫӡ

 

CooperرίԱίԱʣ˽⣬ղ˵йϵһǻ۵Ķӵ?

 

Ϊûйӵˡڷ޵ɵı׼Ƚϵͣǵµı׼Ƚϸߣ˵DZȽϳʵġЩȴѾﵽǧĶ㣬ﵽһ˿ڹʣġĶ㡣磬ΪʲôǶ䰮ԼŮӣȴɱŮ?ΪǵŮ̫ˣ

 

ʣΪһ壬DzȷиĶһָõ߶йͬĻᡢͬȥһ

 

𣺡ǽһҼֱΪһûǻҪЩ

 

ʣѧԼеѧ?

 

ǵйѧѧĶǿӺӵĽԡ

 

BSBrooksйϯرίԱᣩʣ㲻Ϊͬ˽Ӵʹߣй˺ͷˣ֮еijһõ

 

ҵȷΪǵǧͬй˽ӴʹǽΪǵ͵ǵˮƽǵǵΣڡ

 

ʣĩǶǵûкܴˣ

 

ǵģǵΰijɾܻ͡øijɾͣijЩɵġйĻ̻

 

ʣΪǴǵ֮?

 

ǵģǼֱǰԼļ̶ˡ͵ijʱʹȷţǵǵáߣģӵˡӦȥõһǵͷѾٹ̵ƫ˵ǧչɵġ

 

ʣǷ´㲻ΪͬӴʱӮʤ

 

ǰߵ֮ߵ֮죬Dzܵȴ

 

JamesPDameronй̫С޷һ塿

 

JamesPDameronһʦԳơһѧҺѧҡһ֪ʶṹŻݴǿҵɫʣ

 

ɹһʱõ÷ùʷⲿʷԼǧŶʷ׷ݵĦɫ˳ʱDZʹǰҲǴﴫģϣ˴ijǽʱѾһΰġ˵壻ǵΰѧҿӣڻǰʮꡢո׵ǰʮд龭()ǵ׾˵ڸָĺɢдɵѧʷμǡϷ桢ԼС˵ǵԾΪʸˣʽЩӣȻסʱƻһΰ˵άֵõõԭʵĻĩǵõΪӡһնΰʢ˥Ȼ³ѷ廹ڵ¹Ĵ֮СӢһȺҰ˵ʱѾﵽΰĶ㡣

 

ȻʱЩɹһֱûнйһŬԼӱѹ֮½ųԼ塣һ棬ѾʹŷûѪУȼɵĻ棬ͬʱȴڰطں˻˵ͳΡǵıΪǷӺ˻ıǣѭŴͳȵĸٹ̵ĹԽĮĵ̬ԴһͻΪܹõ㹻ĶݷҪǺ磬սѧԼΪɶеĶʹѳ;ɴͳ֮У֮һ˶Ұˡ

 

 

ѧʵѧNottGliddonMortonָκ壬ǵƽʮӢ磬û壻ǵʷвûͼй˺޺˵ƽԼΪʮһʮӢ磬ӡһնƽߴʮݾʮӢ磬ijЩ˸ߴһٶʮӢ硣

 

й˵ڼǧǰѾﵽߵ㣬ǽɹֵӡһɱҲıǵʽһȰ˵ӵ壬DZֱӣȥͬǵó׺ѺùϵҲЩǶԼһֿİԻԭĵطΪãΪһӵ壬һֲͬͬ͡壬Ϊ岻ƽȵһΪȻѾڷɫζıǡ

ĻӦձ֮й֮

1876ЩƫʵǴĵġۡѧѧĽ1882ٳġŻʮֳ緺ijֵġƻۡݡ1895꣬»ƻĸ͢йءƻҹΪԴˣƻۡӣδϢ

 

Ϊָ𷽣ǵصġƻۡгʧ˷¾ʱת͹У˳صĴۡձֻսУҵƻۡõӰӡ

1882йûжԡŻֳرļߣ·뼺޹ءһܶ۹Ļ˶ȴԱպͳٶ۶޸֪һֱ硣ǣƻӿ붫֪ʶĵֿҪָйձȻҲòѰ۵֧֡DZ磬ǻĵ

 

ձ֪ʶ磺ձڻˡ

 

ƻۡй1960ʼֱ֮ǰƻۡԵĴй纣սձսʤйնսлʤձƻۡеѸǿ1913꣬ձѧɣԭؼ˱նսƻ𽥳Ե⡣ձǻƻģйǻƻġ

 

Ϊձ֪ʶ缯ҡ˭в˭ƽȡĵעĿģDzձѧ߷ձڻˣԴ˰ѡƻۡ

 

븣ͼƵѧî͵ĴСձۡձֵо͡ƻƻۡȶƷձ޻ˡ

 

ڡձۡһУî˵ձΪɹּɫֵһйͬŷʵضַ෨Դˣڱʾ̡Ϊձֺй֡Ҫжһǡ﷨ȫͬǡò˵岻Ѫͳ࣬ҺһսھԴƤҹ⻬й޼ߣмϸͨνƤ߶ɼɴ˵㲻ɼʤй֣ʤ֡Կ𪣬ƤëҴֲڣûһνƤߡν˳ףձ֮Ϊס˵Ұϵ֮ò֤ڴˣǿձֲڻɫ֣й֣ᳫƻۡ֡

 

ڡձֵоһУîĹ۵յŷ˲ǾѰ֡ԳΪ֣dzΪѰֻ˵ǵȣұǵ֡

 

ڡƻƻۡһУΪҽձƻۡdz󣺡й˲֣ͬӡȡ˹ϣͬ֡ƻ۵ĸ罫ձ˿йͬĻɫһ㣬ѰʵŪʻƻΪȫ޸֮ԡ಻Ϊձֵıһŵֵ֡δϽʵʷϵʡȻ﷨ƶϵĻǺ벨˹ͬһ֡ǷѧƵ壬˵֮¡

 

й֪ʶ磺۵ơʷ־̭ʷ

 

ܡƻۡҪԵйй֪ʶԡƻۡĸ֪ձٶۡ1882ġŻDZšƻۡӰй֪ʶԴ˲һʣ1895սǰϦձ֪ʶѾÿʼáƻۡĨйڼԴ˻ȡҵĺøСƩԽ֧ۡжһڣԻй硷磬ƻйԴˣй֪ʶȻľ

 

ԡƻۡӦ޴ӰģӦλйתҪ˼Դṩƾšʱ񱨡ľ޴Ӱͼ֡ƻۡǵ

 

֪ʶᄈƻζҰͲʵǽйĶ棬ۻĺ֮һ塣ʼռй˲޶£ʵ˹й˵ĴţԣֲòйȷʵҰƩ㣻ͬʱ˿οԼҲοˣӢάʱͬҰ

 

ͼ⡰ƻۡһҰ޴ϵƣҲ˵йֲɫ֣й֮ҰΪйڽ֮Уйͬij̶ȣйؼڽƣȽɿǣ֮û֮ƶ

 

ͨڶԣЩȻڳˣǸԸİ»ȡġʱ񱨡ı༭ҲƩǷһƪձġ۶թɡ֪ΪߡҰ壻һƪͬձġҽԡϢܣ

 

˽ǷʴԱС߶Լ˹һҲ

 

Ȼ⡰ءػйСҥԡ

 

˵õЧġֹһαʹسϣֻŷʸ񱻳ʷ֡ʵʷ϶һ޶֮ҲԴ

 

ʷߺΣ

 

֮侺ѡ

 

һһ֮䣬ʷȻת;

йת;

1882ġŻֻǡƻۡй˺ĵһ΢С˿ڣΪ֪ʶԱգʹڵʱǿңۼҲ۽ڻܵIJƽӡⲻ֪һǹϵĶũҵҵ֮䲩ĵĽİİײ꣬һ˴˼һʤڵ㡣˺й֪ʶԽԽԵطѳ봫ͳϵ֮ŬķŬʧ֮й֪ʶ缯壬һ˵

 

ԴġѧΪݣΪʤӰܡ֮˵ӰӼһ֮ᣬһ֮ҵ£ӳ乫֮ߡ

 

صúռ˿ڡ

 

ֱ19191920ɽ׫дԡʼʡ

 

֮ʱ죻پ֮ʼԡ֮ǺԴ֮ԭ֮ԭͬԾΪԭԻΪԭߣ֮Ҳߣ֮Ҳ

 

ABStoutͬй˻ϻᵼºǴ˻֮жǵȡƻۡй19ĩ20ͳȻѸȵĿ񳱡֮Ϊ֮ФһҿοĽݾĩ¿϶֮ʱЩ֮˵ĻѲջأ

 

˸ྺרı֮˼ν澺ʤӰܣǶ֮ԣҲۣⷬν֮йʣ֮

 

1882ۣѧ߶ķ˼
غѧй

 

ǿǿʳ档һΪ߷ʶ1900ڡ밮УΪ췭˵й̣Ի˲һ˲£ӡԣԣӢѧ֮飬Ǻߣһ㡱֮ѧɾй

 

꣬йĴӣȴйҲغѧйѧй

ϵάΪԶ

 

֮áйͳҵġϵ˼⡣ΪϵҮ壨壩͡ϵά壨ãĹŹֽϣάΪĿĿԲֶΣ

 

֮ԡáǰ;е̸ۣ֮йѧʿͳνײά壬ЩƷ²Сĵزɣ类Ԭı޳֮ͽɵʱйΣµӹ׺͸ΣҪ󡣡ʵϣ֮ܣԵϲֶεά塣塱ʧѾãáij֣δֹ

Ϊʾȹ

 

1905꣬Ϊй󣬷ˡʾȹۡĴ̡̼ʡԼ֮ǰδ֮ǰΪǿ֮ѧŷ12תһȦŷйʮı䷨ΪСŷĵ·ӡȡйŷ֮ǿ֮ѧ

 

ŷް֮Чйѧѧߡй֮Ҳڲ֪֮ѧѡ

ȪĵĴ粻͹

 

־Ȫ1913׫ķ˼йתͣĩйѳɴ磺

 

֮УؽؽΪȣʻΪв֮ơ㡢л֮ңнɶ֮޴ӡ

 

Ȫܽ˵УһǴ̼ľģǵܣʹڱ͵塣

 

ڶȪһΪܵᣬDzʵֹͺģֻΪȨ´

 

ʾ֮У֮͹ң֮Σ֪Ҳ

 

Ȫж׼ȷġʷһĽǮᣬ׽ķȨר壬˽ݹ񷢲֣ɫȮڹƹɣƾȨɸ֡漯ŽͳͨƽֶԿԼȨ¢ϡ

 

֣ǡˡ

 

Դ

ƻۡʷѡйѧ磻ּ롶йġ磻Ԭӽ졶ƻ۴̼µձʤۡء塷ءִԵ·_ĩ˼ءʷѧ¿ȡ

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